BIO150Y: Evolution of Cooperation Review

Here is a summary of the learning objectives,
quiz questions and FAQs from the tutorial


Tutorial Tips


  1. Social behaviour

  2. Kin selection

  3. Reciprocal altruism

  4. Game theory

Single-Move Game


  1. What is the Prisoner's Dilemma Game?

  2. Cooperation and defection
    What does it mean to defect?

  3. The payoff matrix.
    [FAQ] How the payoff matrix is built
    What is the payoff for mutual defection?


  1. How well did you do?
    Your move and the outcome of your game with the computer was displayed.

  2. How well did everyone else do?
    Your points were added to a class summary graph.

  3. On average which move does best?
    The average payoff for C and for D was calculated from the class data.


  1. What is the logical move is in a single-move Prisoner's Dilemma Game?
    What is the logical move?

  2. What is the dilemma for each player in a single-move Prisoner's Dilemma Game?
    What is the dilemma?

Multiple-Moves Game


  1. What is a multiple-moves Prisoner's Dilemma Game?

  2. Costs and Benefits Payoff Matrix
    [FAQ] Cost-benefit payoff matrix

  3. Your Cost-Benefit Payoff Matrix
    Calculate the payoff


  1. How well did you do?
    Your points total and that of the computer are displayed

  2. How well did you do relative to everyone else?
    Your points total is added to a frequency distribution for the class


  1. Suckers, Cheats and Tit For Tat
    [FAQ] Common strategies defined

  2. Nice and nasty strategies
    What is a nasty strategy?

  3. Were you nice or nasty?

Evolutionary Game


  1. What is an Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma Game?
    Define evolution

  2. How the evolutionary game works. [FAQ]
    Calculating relative success

  3. Try these exercises.

Experiment 1: Do cheats always do better than suckers?

  1. Running your experiment

  2. Questions
What was the starting frequency of the ALLC strategy in the population?

What evidence, if any, was there that evolution occurred?

In general, what is the expected long-term outcome for a population composed of cheats and suckers?

Experiment 2: Can nice strategies beat out nasty strategies?

  1. Running your experiment

  2. Questions

Which strategies were the most successful long-term?

Are the two best strategies nice or nasty?

Which characteristics make for a successful strategy?

Experiment 3: Can Tit for Tat invade a population of cheaters?

  1. Running your experiment

  2. Questions

Can a small number of TFT invade a population of cheats (ALLD)?

If TFT never actually scores more points than ALLD in an encounter, why does it predominate in a mixed population?

Does Tit for Tat exist in nature?

  1. Predator inspection
  2. Blood sharing
  3. Trench warfare


Some selected books and articles

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