BIO150Y: Evolution of Cooperation Bibliography

Useful resources for additional exploration of the Prisoner's Dilemma game

Axelrod, Robert. 1984.

The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books, Inc., New York. Describes the now-classic computer tournaments that highlighted the importance of reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation. Chapter 5 is a slightly modified version of the award-winning paper by Axelrod and evolutionary biologist William D. Hamilton.

Axelrod, Robert. 1997.

The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. A collection of agent-based models, including extensions of the PD such as a norms game.

Dawkins, Richard. 1989.

The Selfish Gene (2nd Edition). Oxford University Press, Oxford. Chapter 12 (Nice guys finish first) is a very good introduction to the topic.

Dugatkin, Lee A. 1991.

Dynamics of the tit for tat strategy during predator inspection in the guppy (Poecilla reticulata). Behaviorial Ecology and Sociobiology, 29:127-132.

Dugatkin, Lee A. 1997.

The Evolution of Cooperation. Bioscience, 47:355-362.

Dugatkin, Lee A. 1999.

Cheating Monkeys and Citizen Bees. Simon and Schuster Inc. New York. 208 pages.

Hofstader, Douglas R. 1983.

Computer tournaments of the Prisoner's Dilemma suggest how cooperation evolves. Scientific American, 248(5): 16-26. An excellent introduction to the topic from a more human-oriented perspective. Reprinted as Chapter 29 in Hofstader's book Methamagical Themas.

Wilkinson, Gerald S. 1984.

Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat. Nature, 308:181-184.

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